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Understanding Digestion Process From An Ayurveda View

Ayurveda explains the digestion strength as Agni. Agni is a Sanskrit word meaning fire. All the factors involved with digestion – enzymes, Hydrochloric acid, etc are collectively termed as Agni. Let us forget about the modern process of digestion and try to learn about it in purely Ayurvedic perspective. So, for the time being please avoid thinking about enzymes, metabolism etc.

The way the ancient seers were looking at human physiology is quite different than the modern perspective. One of the ways they were using to learn and understand human body was comparison.

They learnt in no time that – as wind, light (and heat) and water control the nature, similarly Vata, Pitta and Kapha control the human body. They called these three as Tridosha.  Good wind, good light, and good water can maintain the health of nature. But if wind goes awry, like, there is a storm, if Sun goes awry, like there is sudden increase of temperature or if there is a volcano and if the water goes awry, like there is a cyclone or if there is drought, the nature’s health gets disturbed. Similarly, if Vata, Pitta and Kapha – when they are in normal state, it leads to good health. And if they are increased / decreased, it leads to disease. Tridosha controls  all parts of the body, they also control the Agni – digestive power.

Agni and Pitta – Wherever there is processing with fuel, like running of a motor engine, there is an element of fire involved. Hence, even in the process of food digestion, where food is used as fuel by the body to burn and generate energy, there is predominant involvement of fire.

So, Pitta is the main component of Agni. (In fact, Agni itself means fire.).

Agni and Vata – But as we know, fire alone can not burn a mass. It needs some amount of air as well. Proper quantity of oxygen rich air will keep the fire alive. Wind is correlated with Vata in Ayurveda. Hence, the process of digestion also involves Vata. For your digestion process to run smoothly, your Vata should also be in a healthy state.

Agni and Kapha – When there is a big mass, to burn it, only fire and wind might not be sufficient. You need some lubricating liquid, that would soften and break down the mass into small particles. Liquid / water is correlated with Kapha. Hence, you need a little amount of Kapha also, in the digestion process.

So, Agni is contributed by
Pitta – which acts as the main burning power, which burns the food and divides it into useful part (Rasa) and waste part (Mala – faeces)
Vata – which helps in maintaining proper Pitta. It also helps in the division of useful part and waste part. Vata is responsible for movement of the food taken in, in normal downward direction, from oral cavity to anal canal. It is also responsible for division and further assorting of useful part of food and waste part.
Kapha – which helps in lubricating the food. It helps to break down the food particles into small pieces.

What actually happens during digestion?
At the level of stomach and intestine,
The food received into stomach, gets broken into minute particles, which further get divided into
Essence part – Sara Bhaga – which goes on to nourish all the body tissues (explained below). and
Waste part – Kitta Bhaga – which goes on to form all the waste products of the body – like feces, urine, sweat etc.

How body tissues get nourishment?
There are seven types of body tissues as per Ayurveda, called as Dhatu. They are –
Rasa Dhatu – Essence part of food, also compared with plasma and lymph.
Rakta Dhatu – blood tissue
Mamsa Dhatu – muscle tissue
Asthi Dhatu – bone tissue
Majja Dhatu -Bone marrow tissue
Shukra – male and female reproductive systems. 

 The essence part of food nourishes the Rasa Dhatu. From there on, each Dhatu nourishes the next Dhatu successively.
Each Dhatu has its own Dhatu Agni.

Dhatu Agni means, digestive fire at tissue level.
This Dhatu Agni converts the nourishment that it receives, into respective tissue

Rasa Dhatu has Rasa Dhatu Agni - The digested food is processed by Rasa Dhatu Agni(plasma, or /mucus), to nourish Rasa Dhatu. Then the remnant food part flows to Rakta Dhatu (blood tissue).

Rakta Dhatu (blood tissue) has Rakta Dhatu Agni – The remnant digested food that flows into Rakta Dhatu, gets digested and absorbed by the Rakta Dhatu Agni to nourish blood tissue (Rakta). The remnant part of digested food flows into Mamsa Dhatu (muscle)

Mamsa Dhatu (muscle tissue)  has Mamsa Dhatu Agni – The remnant digested food that flows into Mamsa Dhatu, gets digested and absorbed by Mamsa Dhatu Agni to nourish muscle tissue (Mamsa). The remaining digested food flows into Asthi Dhatu (bone)

Asthi Dhatu – Bone tissue has Asthi Dhatu Agni – The remnant digested food that flows into Asthi Dhatu, gets digested and absorbed by Asthi Dhatu Agni to nourish bone tissue (Asthi). The remaining digested food flows into Majja Dhatu (marrow).

Majja Dhatu – Bone marrow has Majja Dhatu Agni. The remnant digested food that flows into Majja Dhatu, gets digested and absorbed by Majja Dhatu Agni, to nourish bone marrow. (Majja). The remaining digested food flows into Shukra Dhatu (reproductive system).

Shukra Dhatu – reproductive system- has Shukra Dhatu Agni. The remnant digested food that flows into Shukra Dhatu, gets digested and absorbed by Shukra Dhatu agni,l to nourish reproductive system (Shukra).
Thus, from Rasa to Shukra, all the seven dhatus get nourished, respectively by one another, with the help of respective Dhatu Agni (digestive fire component of respective tissue).

How waste products get nourished?
Food, after digestion takes two forms viz,

Prasada – the essence part, that is formed in the first stage. This is also called as ‘Rasa’
Kitta –  the waste part. The waste part further nourishes
Sweda – sweat,
Mootra – urine
Pureesha – feces
Tridosha – Vata, Pitta and Kapha
Excreta of the ear, eye, nose, mouth, hair follicles, as well as genitals organs and also to
Kesha – hair of the head,
Shmashru – beard,
Loma – small hair of the body,
Nakha – nails etc.


Tridosha In Ayurveda – Complete Details – Astanga Hruday Sutrasthan 11

11th chapter of Sutrasthana of Ashtanga Hrudayam explains in detail regarding Tridosha in Ayurveda. Tridosha are – Vata, Pitta and Kapha. Understanding Tridosha concept is your first step towards learning Ayurveda. The chapter is called as Doshadi Vijnaneeya Adhyaya.

Chief constituents of the body :- Dehasya Mulam –

Dosha – Vata, Pitta and Kapha

Dhatu – Body tissues – Rasa (lymph / product of digestion), Rakta (blood), Mamsa (muscle), Meda (fat), Asthi (bone), Majja (bone marrow) and Shukra (male and female reproductory secretions)
Mala – waste products – sweat, urine and faeces Doshas, are the roots of the body.

Functions of normal Doshas –  Prakruta Dosa Karma –

Functions of Vata Dosha – Vata Dosha Karma –
Vata is responsible for all movements. (Movement of blood in blood vessels, movement of nutrients, movement of air in lungs, locomotion movements of hands and legs etc. ) In its normal state Vata causes enthusiasm, Vatha Dosha regulates respiration process, Regulates all locomotor movements, Regulates all activities of mind, speech, initiation of natural urges (tears, faeces, urination, sneezing, coughing, vomiting yawning etc) maintenance of the Dhatus (tissues) in their normalcy and proper functioning of the sense organs.

Functions of Pitta Dosha – Pitta Dosha Karma – 
in its normal state Pitta causes digestion and metabolism
Maintenance of body temperature,
vision, Causes hunger, thirst, appetite,
Maintains skin complexion, intelligence, courage, valour, and softness (suppleness) of the body.

Functions of Kapha Dosha -Kapha Dosha Karma -
Kapha confers stability, lubrication, compactness (firmness) of the joints,
Kshama – It is the cause for mental capacity to withstand or withhold emotions, strains etc. It is also cause for forgiveness 1½ – 3.

Functions of body tissues and waste products – Prakrita Dhatu Mala Karma –

Functions of body tissues – Dhatu Karma – 
Rasa Dhatu (product of digestion and metabolism) – provides nourishment
Rakta (blood) maintenance of life activities,
Mamsa (muscle) – enveloping (covering) – it covers around bones and enables voluntary and involuntary actions
Meda (fat) –  lubrication,
Asthi (bones) – support, forms the framework of the body
Majja (bone marrow) –  filling the inside of the bones and
Shukra (male and female reproduction system)- conception and pregnancy 4.

Functions of waste products – Mala Karma – 
Maintenance of strength of the body is the chief function of faeces;
Elimination of moisture (water) is of urine, and Slow elimination of moisture is of the sweat. 5.

Effects of increased Doshas – Vriddha Dosha Karma:-


Effects of increased Vata –  Vata Vruddhi Lakshana – 
Vata, when increased produces
Karshya – emaciation,
Karshnya – black discoloration,
Ushnakamitva – desire for hot things,
Kampa – tremors
Anaha – bloating, fullness,  distention of the abdomen,
Shakrut Graha – constipation,
Bala bhramsha – loss of strength,
Nidra bhramsha – loss of sleep
Indriya bhramsha – loss of sensory functions,
Pralapa – irrelevant speech,
Bhrama – Delusion, Dizziness giddiness
Deenata – timidity (peevishness). 5½ – 6.

Effects of increase of Pitta  – Pitta Vruddhi Lakshana –
Pitta when increased produces yellow discoloration of the faeces, urine, eyes, and skin;
excess of hunger and thirst,
feeling of burning sensation and very little sleep.6 ½.

Effects of increased of Kapha – Kapha Vruddhi Lakshana –
Kapha,  when increased produces
Agnisadana – weak digestive activity,
Praseka – excess salivation,
Alasya – lassitude, laziness
Gaurava – feeling of heaviness,
Shvaithya – white discoloration,
Shaithya – coldness,
Shlathangatva – looseness of the body parts,
Shwasa – dyspnoea, asthma, COPD
Kasa – cough, cold
Atinidrata –  excess of sleep. 7 – 7½.

Effects of increased body tissues – Vriddha Dhatu Karma:-

Rasa when increased in similar to Kapha, produces the same symptoms of increased Kapha;

Rakta Dhatu Vruddhi Lakshana – 
Blood tissue, when increased produces
Visarpa – Herpes, spreading skin disease,
Pleeha – diseases of the spleen,
Vidradhi – abscesses,
Kushta – skin diseases
Vatasra – gout
Pittasra  – bleeding disease,
Gulma – abdominal tumors,
Upakusa – a disease of the teeth,
Kamala – jaundice,
Vyanga – discoloured patch on the face,
Agninasha – loss of digestion strength
Sammoha – Coma, unconsciousness,
Red discoloration of the skin, eyes, and urine. 8 – 9.

Mamsa Dhatu Vruddhi Lakshana
Muscle tissue, when increased produces
Ganda – cervical lymphadenitis
Granthi – tumor,
Increase in size of the cheeks, thighs, and abdomen,
over growth of muscles of the neck and other places 9 – 9½.

Medo Dhatu Vruddhi Lakshana
Fat tissue), when produces similar symptoms and in addition, it causes fatigue, difficulty in breathing even after little work,
drooping of the buttocks, breasts and abdomen. 9½ – 10.

Asthi Dhatu Vruddhi Lakshana –
Bone tissues, when increased causes overgrowth of bones and extra teeth. 10½.

Majja Dhatu Vruddhi Lakshana –
Marrow, when increased produces heaviness of the eyes and the body, increase of size of the body joints and causes ulcers which are difficult to cure. 10½ – 11½.

Shukra Dhatu Vruddhi Lakshana –
Reproductive tissue, when increased produces great desire for the woman (sexual desire) and seminal calculi (spermolith). 12.

 Effects of increased waste products – Vriddha Mala Karma –

Shakrit (feaces),  when increased causes distension of abdomen, gurgling noise and feeling of heaviness.  12½

Mutra (urine), when increased produces severe pain in the bladder and feeling of non-elimination even after urination. 13

Sweda (sweat) when increased produces excess of perspiration, foul smell and itching. 13½

The increase of Dushika (excretion of the eyes) and other waste products are to be understood by nothing their increased quantity, heaviness (of their sites) and such other symptoms. 14.

Functions decreased Doshas – Ksheena Doshakarma -


Vata Kshaya Lakshana –
Decreased Vata produces symptoms like –
Angasada – debility of the body,
Alpa bhashite hitam – the person speaks very little
Sanjna moha – loss of sensation (awareness) and of consciousness and
occurrence of all the symptoms of increased Kapha. 15.

Pitta Kshaya Lakshana -
Decreased Pitta causes
Mande anala – weakness of digestive activity,
Shaitya – coldness and
Prabha hani – loss of luster (complexion). 15½.

Kapha Kshaya Lakshana -
Decrease of Kapha causes
Bhrama – Delusion, Dizziness,
Shunyatva – emptiness of the organs of Kapha,
hrudrava – tremors of the heart (palpitation) and
Shlatha sandhita – looseness of the joints. 16.

Symptoms of decrease of Dhatu (body tissues) –

Decrease of Rasa dhatu produces dryness, fatigue, emaciation, exhaustion without any work and noise intolerance.

Decrease of Rakta produces desire for sour and cold things, loss of tension of veins (and arteries) and dryness. 17.

Decrease of Mamsa causes debility of the sense organs, emaciation of cheeks, buttocks and pain in the joints. 17½.

Decrease of Medas causes loss of sensation in the waist, enlargement of spleen and emaciation of the body. 18.

Decrease of Asthi causes pain in the joints, falling off of the teeth, hairs, nails etc. 18½.

Decrease of Majja causes hollowness (of the bones inside) giddiness and seeing of darkness 19.

Decrease of Shukra results in delay in ejaculation, ejaculation accompanied with bleeding, severe pain in the testicles and a feeling of hot fumes coming out of the urethra. 20.

Symptoms of decreased waste products – 

Decrease of faeces gives rise to gurgling noise in the intestines and bloating, vata moves in upward direction in the intestine causing discomfort and pain in the region of the heart and flanks. 21.

Decrease of urine causes scanty urination, dysuria, urine discoloration or hematuria. 21½.

Decrease of sweat leads to falling of hair, stiffness of hair and cracking of the skin. 22.

Decrease of Malas which are of little quantity is difficult to perceive, it should be inferred from the dryness, pricking pain, emptiness and tightness of their sites of production and elimination. 23.

The decrease of Dosha Dhatu etc can be observed by the increase of opposite qualities.
The increase of Dosha Dhatu etc can be observed by the increase of similar qualities.
The increase of Malas is observed by their non-elimination (too much of waste product accumulation leading to obstruction) and their decrease by too much of elimination in little quantities. 23½ – 24½.

Body being accustomed to accumulation of waste products (in intestines and bladder) , the decrease of waste product formation is more troublesome than their increase. 25.

Relationship between Dosha and Dhatu 

Vata resides in Asthi (bones)
Pitta resides in Sweda (sweat) and Rakta (blood)
Kapha resides in rest of the Dhatu and Mala.

In case of Pitta and Kapha, when there is an increase of Pitta or Kapha, there is also respective increase of tissues and waste products associated with them.

For example, if Pitta increases, then sweat and blood vitiation also increases. The same rule applies to decrease as well.

But in case of Vata, if Vata decreases, then Asthi increases. They are inverse proportionately related with each other. 26 – 27.

Cause for increase or decrease of Dosha

The increase of Doshas, Dhatus and Mala is usually due to excess nutrition (Tarpana), which is followed later on with increase of Kapha.
Whereas the decrease of Doshas, Dhatus and Malas is due to loss of nutrition which is followed, later with increase of Vayu (Vata).

Hence, the diseases arising from increase  of Dosha and Dhatu should be usually treated quick by adopting Langhana (therapy causing thinning of the body, reducing the quantity)

The diseases arising from the decrease of Dosha and Dhatu should be treated with  Brimhana therapy (causing stoutening the body, increasing the quantity etc.)

But in case of Vata, the order is reverse. If Vata is increased, then Brihmana therapy (nourishing therapy) should be adopted and if Vata decreases then Langhana therapy should be adopted. 28 – 29.

Effects of vitiated Doshas – Dusta Dosha Karma – 

 The Doshas which are vitiated [become abnormal undergoing either increase or decrease] cause vitiation of the Rasa and other Dhatus (tissues) next;
Both Doshas and Dhatus together vitiate the Malas (waste products) which in turn, vitiate the Malayanas (channels of their elimination).

Malayana – routes of elimination of waste products are –

two below – anus and urethra,
seven in the head, and
the channels of sweat; from these vitiated channels develop their connected diseases. 34½ – 36.

Ojas – the essence of Dhatus :-

Ojas is the essence of the Dhatus;
It is mainly located in the heart. It is present all over the body and regulates health.

Qualities –
Snigdha – unctuous, oily
Somatmaka – watery
Shuddha – clear (transparent),
Ishat Lohita Peetakam – slight reddish yellow in colour;
Loss of Ojus leads to loss of life.

All aspects of health are related to Ojas.

Cause for decrease of Ojas
Ojas undergoes decrease in quantity by anger, hunger (starvation), worry, grief, exertion etc.,
Symptoms of Ojas decrease –
The person becomes fretful, debilitated, repeatedly worries without any reason, feels discomfort in sense organs, develops bad complexion, negative thoughts and dryness;

Treatment – Use of drugs of Jivaniya group (Enlivening) (mentioned in chapter 15) milk, meat juice etc. 39 – 40.

Notes :- Many more causes of decrease of Ojas have been mentioned in other texts of Ayurdeva, they are

Ativyayama  – too much exercise
Anashana – fasting for long periods of time
Alpasana  – eating less quantities of food
Rooksapana (intake of alcoholic beverages which cause dryness),
Pramitasana (intake of mixture of good and bad foods),
Bhaya (fear),
Prajagara (waking up at night),
Abhighata (injury),
Abhishanga (assault by evil spirits; micro organisms like bacteria, virus etc.), Dhatukshaya (depletion of tissues such as by haemorrhage etc.),
Ativisarga (too much of elimination) of Kapha, Sonita (blood), Sukra (semen) and Mala (waste products);
Visha (ingestion of  poison)
Increase of Ojas makes for contentment, nourishment of the body and increase of strength. 41.

The increase of Doshas should be controlled by avoidance of foods which are disliked.

The decrease of Doshas should be managed by foods indulgence of food that are desired. 42.

The Doshas which have undergone increase and decrease generally produce desire for foods which are dissimilar and similar (in properties to those of the Doshas) respectively; but the unintelligent person do not recognize them. 43.

The Doshas, when increased produce their respective features (signs and symptoms) depending upon their strength; when decreased they do not produce signs and symptoms and when normal, they attend to their normal functions. 44.

The very same Doshas, which when normal, are the causes for growth of the body, become the causes for its destruction when abnormal.
Hence by adopting suitable measures, the body should be protected from their decrease and increase 45.

Thus ends the chapter called Doshadi Vijnaneeya Adhyaya.



Dhatu – 7 Body Tissues As Explained In Ayurveda

Ayurveda explains about 7 body tissue components which form the physical body. The functioning of body tissue is regulated by Tridosha. Let us learn about each of them in detail. 

These seven body tissues are called as ‘Dhatu’ in Ayurveda.
They are –
Rasa Dhatu –
The Rasa is produced soon after digestion. It is the essence part of the food that circulates allover the body and nourishes all the body tissues. It is grossly compared to plasma part of blood. Its basic function is Preenana – to nourish all the body tissues.
It is controlled by Kapha Dosha. Usually Kapha Dosha increase causes increase of Rasa Dhatu. and Kapha decrease leads to Rasa dhatu decrease.

Rakta Dhatu – It is compared directly with blood and its component. It is formed by receiving the nourishment from Rasa Dhatu.  Its main function is Jeevana – enlivening. It is directly related with Pitta Dosha. Pitta Dosha increase leads to Rakta increase and vice versa.

Mamsa Dhatu – It is compared with muscle tissue. It gets its nourishment from Rakta Dhatu. Its main function is Lepana – It gives shape to the body parts and it sticks to the bones, helping in locomotor activities. It is controlled by Kapha Dosha. Usually Kapha Dosha increase and decrease leads to Mamsa Dhatu increase and decrease respectively.

Meda Dhatu – It is compared to fat tissue. It gets nourished by Mamsa Dhatu. Its main function is Snehana – lubrication. Its increase and decrease is influenced by Kapha Dosha. Hence, Kapha dosha dominant person is usually rich in fat tissue.

Asthi Dhatu – It is compared to bone tissue. It gets nourished by Meda Dhatu. Its main function is Dharana – to hold the body up straight. It is influenced by Vata Dosha. But Vata Dosha increase leads to Asthi Dhatu decrease and Vata Dosha decrease leads to Asthi Dhatu increase. This is why, in old age, when Vata is increased, bone tissue degeneration occurs.

Majja Dhatu – It is compared to bone marrow and all the tissue that fill bone cavity. For example, eye tissue is also considered as Majja. Some also consider brain tissue also as formed by Majja Dhatu. Its main function is Poorana – to fill in the bone cavities. Its increase and decrease is controlled by Kapha Dosha.

Shukra Dhatu – It is compared with male and female reproductive system and its secretions. Its main function is Garbhotpadana – reproduction. It is controlled by Kapha Dosha. It gets nourishment from Majja Dhatu.

Decrease Of Tissues – Dhatu Kshaya – Reasoning, Symptoms

There are seven types of tissues in our body as per Ayurveda. These are called as Dhatu. Decrease or depletion of body tissues is termed as Dhatu Kshaya. In learning about disease process, having a clear knowledge of Dhatu and Dhatu kshaya is as important as understanding Tridosha.  

We already have learnt about What are Dhatus and what are its types in detail.

Depletion of body tissues is explained in 17th chapter of Charaka Samhita Sutrasthana

Rasa Dhatu Kshaya – depletion of Rasa
Rasa is the first tissue that is formed as a result of food digestion.  After food is digested, the essence part of the food is called as Rasa dhatu.  Some compare this with blood plasma.
Rasa dhatu and Kapha dosha are directly connected. Increase or decrease of Kapha dosha directly causes the same in Rasa Dhatu.

Decrease of Rasa dhatu indicates dehydration, and lack of nutrients.
The symptoms are –
Ghattate -patient becomes restless,
Sahate Shabdam Na – he does not stand loud sounds, becomes intolerant;
Hrudrava – palpitation,
Hrudayam Tamyati Alpa Cheshtasya Api – cardiac pain, exhaustion even with the slightest exertion.
All these symptoms can be correlated with the symptoms of dehydration / lack of nutrition.

Rakta Dhatu Kshaya – depletion of Rakta (blood) –
Blood tissue gets its nourishment from Rasa Dhatu. Rakta and Pitta are directly related. Increase / decrease of Pitta dosha directly causes the same with blood tissue.
Depletion of blood tissue causes symptoms of anemia, which are explained as –

Parusha – Roughness,
Sphutita – cracks,
Mlana- dullness,
Tvak Rukshata – skin dryness.

Mamsa Dhatu Kshaya – depletion of muscle tissue –
Muscle tissue gets its nutrition by Rakta Dhatu.
Depletion of muscle tissue directly causes weakening of limbs and causes  –
Sphik, Greeva Udara Shushkata – emaciation of the buttocks, neck and abdomen.

Medo Dhatu Kshaya – depletion of fat tissue –
Fat tissue gets nourishment by Mamsa Dhatu. Depletion of this causes thinness of the body. 
Sandhi sphutana – cracking of the joints,
Glani – Lassitude,
Akshno Ayasa – tired eyes,
Udara tanutva – thinness of the abdomen.

Asthi Dhatu Kshaya – depletion of bone tissue –
As per Ayurveda, bone tissue gets nourishment by fat tissue. This is why, oral administration of oil, ghee etc are advised during osteoporosis, osteo arthritis etc.
Bone tissue is inversely related with Vata Dosha. This means that, increase of Vata dosha causes depletion of bone tissue and vice versa.
Ayurveda explains that teeth, nail, mustache are also related with bone tissue. Hence, depletion of bone tissue exhibits the following symptoms. –
Kesha, Loma, Nakha, Shmashru, Dvija prapatana – falling of hair, nails hair of the beard including mustaches and teeth,
Shrama – tiredness,
Sandhi shaithilya – looseness of joints.

Majja Dhatu Kshaya – depletion of bone marrow –
As per Ayurveda, marrow gets its nourishment by Asthi dhatu. 
depletion of Majja dhatu causes –
Asthi Sheeryata – emptiness of bones,
Durbala, Laghu Asthi – thinness,weakness, and lightness of the bones,
Vata Roga – frequent affliction with Vata imbalance disorders.

Shukra Dhatu Kshaya – depletion of semen / female reproductive tissues –
As per Ayurveda, Shukra dhatu comprises of male and female reproductive system. It gets its nourishment by Majja Dhatu.
Its depletion causes –
Daurbalya – weakness,
Mukha Shosha – dryness of mouth,
Pandutva – pallor,
Sadana – lassitude,
Shrama – tiredness,
Klaibya – impotency and
Shukra Avisarga – non-ejaculation of semen, non-ovulation.

Understanding body depletion symptoms helps  in better understanding of disease process and this article is a small step in that direction.

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